The utility model provides a cold and hot aluminum slag treatment system, which comprises a barrel, wherein roller beds are respectively arranged outside two ends of the barrel, a rack is provided with rollers corresponding to the roller beds, a roll lever and a gyrostat are arranged in the barrel, a power transmission device is also arranged outside the barrel, a rotary screen is fixedly arranged on one end of the barrel, a bulk material outlet is formed in a core of the rotary screen, and a material lifting board is arranged on the tail end of the rotary screen. The cold and hot aluminum slag treatment system is reasonable in structure, can treat both hot slag and cold slag, dust can be decreased and the crushing effect can be enhanced. The middle equipment links can be decreased and dust can be reduced. The influence of temperature change and manual operation profession degree in the hot slag treatment of the existing rubbing machine, a rotary kiln and the like on the recovery rate can be overcome, the treatment cost can be lowered, and the recovery rate can be improved. The cold and hot aluminum slag treatment system is good in usage effect, thus being complete equipment for industrially and mechanically treating cold and hot slag.